View Full Version : Afrika en sy "Tribes"

05-08-2015, 11:19 AM
Ek is reeds lank van mening dat baie wat in Afrika gebeur juis is asgevolg van die oer-oue stamgebondenheid (tribalism). Onlangse voorbeelde soos in Burundi ens. Hier is 'n Afrikaan wat saam stem.

It has begun: South Africa's new violent tribalism http://www.rdm.co.za/politics/2015/04/29/it-has-begun-south-africa-s-new-violent-tribalismAttacks on foreigners suggest the emergence of a tribal identity in which black South Africans see themselves as different to other AfricansThe Mozambican leader Samora Machel once famously proclaimed that, “for the nation to live, the tribe must die”.
I never liked this formulation because of its underlying assumption that tribal identities don‘t matter.
Throughout history, human beings have belonged to one tribe or another. But as Archie Mafeje argued in his famous 1971 article “The Ideology of Tribalism”, published in The Journal of Modern African Studies, the colonial-apartheid system manipulated tribal identities to Balkanise the black population into different homelands.
A concept that once referred to a small group of people in a limited geographical area was revised to be co-extensive with people who spoke more or less the same language over large territories. To be sure, smaller tribes were often conquered by bigger tribes. But then they saw themselves as part of new kingdoms, not tribes.
The danger arose when these kingdoms were not only tribalised but also endowed with distinctive characteristics. The most damaging of these stereotypes was that the Zulu were warriors and the Xhosa were educated. That the Zulus were just as desirous of a peaceful future as anybody or that the great majority of Xhosa were not educated was disregarded in the construction of divide and rule.
By the ‘80s the narrative was that the Zulu “warriors” were under attack from a Xhosa-led ANC. This ignored that for most of its existence the ANC was dominated by highly educated Zulu leaders such as Pixley ka Seme, John Langalibalele Dube and Albert Luthuli.
The stereotypes left tens of thousands of people dead in the tribal wars of the ‘80s. The parallels between those wars and the current xenophobic attacks are striking. These include the horrendous “necklace”, the brandishing of “cultural weapons”, and the single-sex hostels that were the staging ground for late-apartheid tribalism. Can somebody please tell me why we still have people living in hostels 20 years into a democratic South Africa?
The stereotypes are different now, but they all find fertile ground in a society where the tribe has replaced the nation. Now it is not just the Zulu or the Xhosa but black South Africans who see themselves as different from other Africans.
I am now going to speak in the collective “we” in describing this new black tribal identity and the stereotypes on which it is constructed. I shall do so because we are all, in different ways, implicated in this horrendous crime against the humanity of other people.
First, we tell ourselves that other Africans are here to steal our jobs. What a lousy excuse for hatred. Unemployment, inequality and poverty were unacceptably high long before many Africans came here. Zimbabweans came running here after our own government refused to put pressure on Robert Mugabe to stop the misrule of his country. Lost on us is the irony of applauding the dictator when he visits South Africa while chasing his refugees with machetes. And we turn around to call ourselves Mandela‘s children?
Those of us who warned of the large-scale migration that would follow Zimbabwe‘s collapse were called “sellouts” by the high and mighty in Thabo Mbeki‘s government. The sad thing is that all of our troubles have been foretold — from electricity shortages to HIV/Aids to migration. But then again, denial is our national pastime and leadership our achilles heel.
Second, we demonise other Africans as “criminals”. But if the thugs who murdered Emmanuel Sithole do not represent all of us, why can‘t we accord the same logic to other communities? We are dishing to fellow Africans the same hate that was dished to us by white people under apartheid. We do not even bother to ask about their backgrounds and achievements. Do we really think that decent, hard-working, well-educated people would voluntarily leave their countries to become beggars on our streets?
All over the world people embark on perilous journeys across oceans and deserts to save themselves and their children from anarchy and the perils of war. Given our government‘s collusion in the collapse of Zimbabwe, we should at least have some compassion for ordinary Zimbabweans in our communities.
The third stereotype is that a Sithole in Mozambique is unrelated to a Sithole in Durban or Johannesburg. And yet the Sithole were a strong ally of Shaka. How ironic, then, that a Sithole died at the hands of his own people, following the words of one of Shaka's descendants. That is what tribalism does — it devours even its own. We ignore at our peril that African people are related, despite the history of migration.
I once hosted a workshop in which Julius Nyerere described the migrant history of African people as follows: “My tribe came to where we are now in Tanzania as a result of the refugee movements which were caused by the wars of slavery, the wars which disturbed the whole blessed continent. And our people have been moving and moving and moving all the time, refugees running away all the time. And a lot of so-called tribes in Africa are groups of refugees.”
That is as true for the African migrants in our communities today as it was for our ancestors thousands of years before Europeans even arrived here.
Fourth, the killers say their only objection is that the migrants are here illegally. But how would they know? Did they ask to see their documents? And when did refugees start at the visa office before they leave their countries? I bet the haters would have killed them even if they had shown their documents.
I say all these things to reject the notion that there are legitimate economic reasons for the attacks. The economic argument suggests the causes are outside of us, and even beyond our power. But what we are dealing with here are ingrained prejudices that long predate the present moment, drummed into our minds by the very same colonialists we claim to have overcome. Where is the blackness that was the ethical construct and the moral compass against apartheid, when our present government mostly speaks of the attacks as economic damage to “Brand South Africa”? Who are we and what have we become that we now see everything through the sign of the rand?
The truth is we have no social contract to guide us in this country. We have become the postmodern face of a xenophobic tribalism that will devour everything in its way, and ultimately become a threat to our very existence as a society. Instead of our nationally elected government, we had a tribal monarch left standing to call a national imbizo — to douse the very flames he had started. Where was the president of the republic at our most perilous moment? Where was the party that was founded by our forefathers to fight tribalism? Was the absence of national leadership further confirmation that the tribe has indeed become the nation, and the nation the tribe?
Mangcu is associate professor of sociology at the University of Cape Town
This article first appeared in the Sunday Times (http://www.rdm.co.za/politics/2015/04/29/www.timeslive.co.za)

05-10-2015, 06:42 PM
Om dit waarvan hy praat af te breek, kom die woord nasionalisme in my kop op. Ons almal weet wat nasionalisme is en dit is ook n anglisisme wat in ons taal aanvaar is. Maar wanneer ons oor die verskillende vlakke praat, moet ons dalk van trots praat. Nasietrots of dan in die geval van “Tribalism” moet ons dalk van stam trots praat.

Ek sien wat die ou skryf en vanuit n sekere hoek wat n mens daarna kyk, maak dit baie sin. Veral in die tyd wat ons leef en ons baie graag die gebeure wil ontleed en verstaan sodat dit dalk in die toekoms moontlik voorkom kan word.

Ek dink dat dit ’n eienskap van die mens is om reëls te maak waar dinge skeef geloop het sodat dit in die toekoms nie weer moet skeef loop nie. Vanuit die westerse kultuur is dit die manier hoe ons oorleef en vorentoe gaan en dit is selfs die maatstaf waarmee Ubuntu die aggressie binne die groep bestuur.

In die lig van die afgelope gebeure en die mens se begeerte om sulke ongelukkigheid in die toekoms te voorkom, is die skrywer of denke van die skrywer presies in die kol. Dit is presies ook hoe nuwe wette gemaak word. Situasies ontstaan en die owerhede het die steun van die bevolking om wette te maak sodat dit wat gebeur het, in die toekoms of voorkom kan word of glad nie weer kan gebeur nie.

Kyk ons nou na die xenofobie wat gebeur het, is ek geneig om dit so ietwat anders te sien was wat die skrywer dit sien. Ja, dit is so dat die propaganda onder die mense oor die afgelope nege of tien jaar al algemene kennis geword het dat uitlanders hulle werkgeleenthede steel. Daardie propaganda is polities’ gedrewe en wanneer ons na die xenofobie kyk en jy praat met die polisie in baie hoë range, sal hulle vir jou vertel dat die besigheid te georganiseerd was om spontaan te wees.

Dit bring my terug na die onderwerp van tribalism of stam-trots en wat die vorige President van Mosambiek oor die situasie tesê gehad het. Het julle geweet dat die hoof misdaad waarvoor Zambiërs gedurende die sewentigerjare gearresteer was, juis op die klag van tribalism gearresteer was. Vra jy jouself waarom dit so groot sonde is, kan jy dit slegs as n sonde sien wanneer jy daarna vanuit n een wêreld regering se perspektief bekyk.

Stam-trots of nasie-trots is iets wat na die toring van babel in die mens se DNA ingebou is. Die mens kan dit ontken en vir baie jare daarsonder klaarkom. Maar soos die blom van n bamboes plant, sal die kultivar een of andertyd, sonder waarskuwing blom vrek en saadskiet. En wanneer die nuwe saad ontkiem, sal die ou kultivar met nuwe lewe die aarde bevolk.

Vir die nuwe wêreld regering of soos wat ons dit nou hoor, die nuwe wêreld orde, waar elke nasie stam en taal, onder een regering as gelyke onderdane moet verenig, is enige vorm van stam of nasietrots n potensiële probleem. Daarom sal ons nou reeds soos wat dit reeds in Zambië en Mosambiek die geval is, optredes kry waardeur die regering tegnies deur die bevolking gevra word om op te tree, om in die toekoms soortgelyke optredes van die bevolking te onderdruk.

En dit is ook in hierdie lig wat ons as Afrikaners uitgelok word om ons nasietrots te bewys. Daar is tans n video wat ons geskiedenis in Duits uitbeeld, en wat vir ons bewys dat ons iets spesiaals het. Daardie baie goed ontwerpte video is deur ons vyande gemaak om ons nasietrots na vore te bring sodat ons onsself as die potensiële vyand van die nuwe staat kan identifiseer.

Wees versigtig soos die slange en opreg soos die duiwe, om nie mislei te word of om in strikke ingelei te word nie. Dit was ons op die TV sien, is nie noodwendig die volle waarheid nie.

Andre van Tonder
09-07-2015, 10:59 AM
in sy videoreeks oor die NWO en die koms van die Antichris praat Dr Kent Hovend oor die tese en die antitese. Ek stem nie noodwendig saam met sy uiteindelike geloofsoortuigings nie, maar hy gee seker een van die beste uiteensettinge van hoe hoe dieselfde party wat die geweld aanblaas deur een faksie ook dan die "verlosser" wat opstaan uit die ander faksie om die konflik tot rus te bring, self daar geplaas het.

Op die ou einde word die oorspronklike doelwit bereik ongeag deur water party dit geoden word. Doe groter groep wat deur die konflik geraak word is teen daardie tyd al so moeg balklei dat hulle enige "oplossing" sal aanvaar solank dit net die geweld en leiding stop.

Die media word uitmuntend vir die doel gebruik. Nie net word nuusberigte selektief weergegee om 'n seker doel te bereik nie, maar selfs films en TV verhale word gebruik om stelselmatig die groter bevolking voor te berei vir wat die arganiseerders van die NWO in gedagte het.

Kyk maar hoe sekere groen filosofieë wat op die oog af volhoubare hulpbronbestuur in gedagte het eintlik daarop gemik is om vir almal op aarde te kan voorskryf hoe en wat jy mag ontwikkel, waar jou kos vandaan gaan kom en so aan. Op die oog af is al hierdie goed baie pragtig en edel, maar sodra mens dieper delf in die onderliggende beginsels raak dit duidelik dat totale beheer oor die aarde se bevolking deur 'n handjie vol magshebbers beplan word.

AL wat ons hieraan kan doen is om met absolute oorgawe aan ons Vader se beloftes vas te klou en te weet dat, ongeag wat die Bose na ons gaan gooi, ons uiteindelik as verlostes in die volle oorwinning sal deel. Intussen kan elkeen van ons net voortgaan om die Groot Opdrag uit te voer met die hoop dat soveel moontlik mense met wie ons in aanraking kom uiteindelik in die oorwinning sal deel.